Vimentin (57 kDa) is the most ubiquituos intermediate filament protein and the first to be expressed during cell differentiation. All primitive cell types express vimentin but in most non-mesenchymal cells it is replaced by other intermediate filament proteins during differentiation.
Vimentin is expressed in a wide variety of mesenchymal cell types: fibroblasts, endothelial cells etc., and in a number of other cell types derived from mesoderm, e.g., mesothelium and ovarian granulosa cells. However, in non-vascular smooth muscle cells, vimentin is often replaced by desmin. In striated muscle, vimetin is also replaced by desmin. However, during regeneration, vimentin is reexpressed. Cells of the lymfo-haemopoietic system (lymphocytes, macrophages etc.) also express vimentin, sometimes in scarce amounts.
Vimentin is also found in mesoderm derived epithelia, e.g. kidney (Bowman capsule), endometrium and ovary (surface epithelium), in myoepithelial cells (breast, salivary and sweat glands), an in thyroid gland epithelium. In these cell types, as in mesothelial cells, vimentin is coexpressed with cytokeratin. Furthermore, vimentin is detected in many cells from the neural crest. Particularly melanocytes express abundant vimentin. In glial cells vimentin is coexpressed with glial filament acidic protein (GFAP).
Vimentin is present in many different neoplasms but is particulary expressed in those originated from mesenchymal cells. Sarcomas e.g., fibrosarcoma, malignt fibrous histiocytoma, angiosarcoma, and leio- and rhabdomyosarcoma, as well as lymphomas, malignant melanoma and schwannoma, are virtually always vimentin positive. Mesoderm derived carcinomas like renal cell carcinoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma and adenocarcinomas from endometrium and ovary usually express vimentin. Also thyroid carcinomas are vimentin positive. Any low differentiated or sarcomatoid carcinoma may express some vimentin.
Vimentin is frequently included in the so-called primary panel (together with CD45, cytokeratin, and S-100 protein): Intense staining reaction for vimentin without coexpression of other intermediate filament proteins is strongly suggestive of a mesenchymal tumour or a malignant melanoma. However, in biopsies representing only a sarcomatoid part of renal cell carcinoma a.o. a strong positivity for vimentin without cytokeratin expression may be seen. Tumours like lymphomas and seminomas have the same intermediate filament profile, but the vimentin expression is usually weaker.
Tonsil is a recommended positive control: Virtually all the peripheral B- and T-cells must show at least a moderate cytoplasmic staining reaction, while no staining reaction should be seen in the squamous epithelial cells.
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