In 1982 Stein and coworkers identified a new molecule, CD30 (Ki-1), which is expressed by Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin’s disease. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily, which comprises more than 10 different members. CD30 has an extracytoplasmic domain, transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic domain. The majority of mAbs against human CD30 recognize epitopes within the extracytoplasmic domain. The protein is heavily glycosylated within the Golgi apparatus (120 kDa). A variant form (CD30v) having only the cytoplasmic domain is expressed in alveolar macrophages. CD30 has a ligand molecule (CD30L also designated as CD153), which is present on neutrophils, activated T-cells, macrophages and monocytes. Lymphoid cells carrying viral EBV, HIV, and HTLV-1 genomes express high levels of CD30. It is not clear whether this is due to viral transactivation of CD30 or it correlates with cell activation and proliferation. CD30 is found in activated B lymphocytes, plasma cells, T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, large lymphoid cells in lymph node, tonsil, thymus, deciduas and endometrial cells with decidual change.
Among malignant lymphoma CD30 is expressed in classical Hodgkin’s disease (cHD), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (av-DLBCL), and CD30 positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Some cases of mycosis fungoides can have significant CD30 expression. Primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman’s disease may also be positive (association with HHV8). Expression of CD30 has also been demonstrated in embryonal carcinoma and some seminomas (mixed germ cell tumour).
Classification of malignant lymphoma and other lymphocytic lesions, see Neoplasms. Classification of carcinomas and germ cell tumours, viz. identification of embryonal carcinoma (together with OCT3/4).
Tonsil is recommended as positive tissue control for CD30. The protocol must be calibrated to provide a weak to moderate but distinct membranous staining reaction of interfollicular activated B- and T-cells and perifollicular germinal centre B-cells. Virtually all other cells must be negative. Plasma cells, macrophages and endothelial cells may be positive depending on the primary antibody clone. E.g plasma cells can be stained by Ber-H2, endothelial cells by JCM182 and 1G12 and macrophages by 1G12. The choice of correct control material is of immense importance. Several laboratories used a Hodgkin lymphoma as positive control. This cannot be recommended since some lymphomas have high-level CD30 expression while others have a low-level expression. Lymphomas with high-level expression will not provide information on the limit of detection level and consequently impair the ability to demonstrate CD30 in neoplasias with low-level expression.
Selected references
Durkop H, Foss HD, Eitelbach F, Anagnostopoulos I, Latza U, Pileri S, Stein H. Expression of the CD30 antigen in non-lymphoid tissues and cells. J Pathol. 2000 Apr;190(5):613-8. Mechtersheimer G, Moller P. Expression of Ki-1 antigen (CD30) in mesenchymal tumors. Cancer. 1990 Oct 15;66(8):1732-7. Pileri SA, Ascani S, Leoncini L, Sabattini E, Zinzani PL, Piccaluga PP, Pileri A Jr, Giunti M, Falini B, Bolis GB, Stein H. J Clin Pathol. 2002 Mar;55(3):162-76. Hodgkin's lymphoma: the pathologist's viewpoint.
22.04.15 - ET/MV/LE